by Walter Last

The iris is like a map of the body - changes in certain organs are reflected in specific parts of the iris. The right iris shows the condition of the right side of the body, while the left iris reflects the left side. The exact relationship between iris and body parts can be seen from the iris chart below. Iris diagnosis is also known as iridology.

In health, the iris is composed of densely structured fine, straight lines, radiating from the pupil to the outer rim. A close grain, similar to that of hardwood, indicates a strong inherited vitality and good recuperative powers in the case of temporary illness. If the fibres are loosely spread, as in softwood, the basic health is weak.

In poor health these lines become separated and distorted, forming various patterns, called markings. Very weak organs often show elliptically formed grey markings - so-called closed lesions resembling knots in wood. In poor health many of these closed lesions may be found in the iris, indicating areas in which the circulation is stagnating. If these lesions are not 'walled in', but open at one end or both, this indicates that despite a weakness the circulation in this area is good.

Colour Changes

Start by studying your own eyes in a mirror. Then look at the eyes of friends and relatives. Use a magnifying glass and a torch held at the side of the eye. Make a coloured copy of your own eyes or those of a friend, and compare it with the iris chart. Study the general colour pattern. Markings are much easier to detect in blue than in brown eyes. Often there will be brownish discolourations in blue or green eyes extending outward from the pupil. This area belongs to the intestines. The brown colour change indicates that there is a deterioration of the digestive system, usually associated with inherited liver and gall bladder weakness.

Frequently, the eyes of babies change from blue to brownish within days or weeks of the baby's introduction to cows' milk. Often allergy symptoms are present simultaneously, for example, eczema, respiratory and digestive difficulties. These colour changes may also occur in breastfed babies if the mother uses cows' milk or its products. Presumably this change may already occur in the foetus.

The brown colour of genuinely brown eyes comes from melanin pigments, while pathological brown colour changes originate from oxidised lipoproteins (for example, lipofuscin) and possibly from the breakdown products of blood colouring agents (for example, bilirubin). Additional discolouration may result from drug deposits.

Sometimes there is so much brown it is difficult to detect the original colour. Organ areas that border the intestinal ring where it shows strong markings are likely to suffer from reflected weaknesses. White in the iris indicates overactivity, irritation, acidity, infection, inflammation or catarrh of the corresponding body part. In some eyes the whole iris shows much white; in others it is concentrated in certain areas only.

Generally, a brown discolouration means that cows' milk products, saturated fats (all fats that are solid at room temperature), chemicals and stimulants should be avoided as much as possible. A very white discolouration indicates mucus congestion. Therefore, mucus-forming foods should be avoided - gluten, refined carbohydrates, wheat, lactose, oranges and anything mouldy.

Gradually, an organ may change from an inflamed to a chronically weak condition. The white in the iris will simultaneously change to grey; the darker the grey, the weaker the organ. During health improvement you may watch the reverse process: the grey areas becoming lighter in colour, then white and finally restored to the original colour - a process that takes many years.

Generally, white markings indicate a need for sedating, anti-inflammatory treatment of the associated organ, while grey or brown areas show a need for strengthening and stimulation.


Abbreviations: ADREN = Adrenal Gland, AP. = Appendix, G.B. = Gall-bladder, P. = Pineal Gland, PA. =Pancreas, PIT. = Pituitary Gland, S.P. = Solar Plexus.


Common Conditions

PUPIL REFLEX : If a pupil does not contract when a bright light shines on to it, this indicates dulled nerve reflexes, weak adrenal glands or an overstimulated sympathetic nervous system, often from fear as a hidden, chronic condition. Adrenal stress is indicated if the pupils begin to expand and contract repeatedly when exposed to bright light for 30 seconds.

NERVE WREATH : A strong, white and almost circular outline of the intestinal area - the nerve wreath - indicates a good Condition of the autonomic nervous system. If this outline is weak, jagged, discoloured, or extends far towards the periphery or the pupil, we may assume the autonomic nervous system is in a poor condition. The normal position of the nerve wreath is one-third the distance between the pupil and the periphery; if the nervous system is tense and overactive, the wreath is closer to the pupil, and if the nervous system is relaxed and under-active it is closer to the periphery.

NERVE RINGS : White circles or arcs of circles in the outer part of the iris. They indicate a tense, over-reactive, irritated nervous system. The outermost iris zones represent the lymphatic and circulation system and, bordering the sclera, the skin.

DISCOLOURED STOMACH AREA : In a normal condition the stomach area is not visible, but if the stomach is irritated the area bordering the pupil will be whitish and distinct from the intestinal area. A brownish discolouration of the stomach area indicates a chronic weakness.

DISCOLOURED INTESTINAL AREA : A whitish intestinal area indicates inflammation, irritation or ulcers; avoid gluten products, lactose, spices and acid foods; use mucilaginous supplements (fenugreek, slippery elm, comfrey, linseed), brown rice, and the outer parts of potatoes. If there is a mucous congestion in the head, there is a whitish or brownish discolouration in the transverse colon area, radiating towards ear and brain. If chronically weak, this area will be dark.

RADIAL BLACK LINES : When there is a serious deterioration of the intestines, strong black lines (radii solaris) will develop, starting from the pupil and radiating towards the periphery. Organs through which these radii pass will be very weak as well.

UNUSUAL MARKINGS : Distinct markings may be coloured brown, red or yellow. Unusual colours indicate deposits of drugs or other chemicals that settle in weak organs.

WHITE OUTER RING : A heavy white ring near the outer edge of the iris points to salt (sodium) and calcium deposits. Avoid salt, drink plenty of water, possibly use potassium and magnesium supplements, and natural vitamin D; improve kidney activities.

BLUISH-WHITE FILM : A bluish-white film beginning to cover the iris from the outer rim indicates poor circulation to this area and an anaemic condition. Often this film appears in the brain area, indicating approaching senility (arcus senilis).

DARK OUTER RING : A dark ring at the outer rim (scurf rim) shows the skin is inactive with accumulated wastes, and needs frequent stimulation, better circulation and improved kidney and lung activities.

LYMPHATIC ROSARY : A series of white spots near the outer rim, the 'lymphatic rosary', indicates chronic infection and congestion of the lymphatic system. Avoid especially lactose and cows' milk products (except butter).

It may require years to become an expert in iridology, but the basic rules given here will already enable you to form a well-founded judgement about the condition of your body. You may also be able to help other people if you have this knowledge. Experiment, and you will soon find iridology a valuable and fascinating tool. The most extensive information in book form on iridology is available from Bernhard Jensen, mainly his book Iridology Volume 2.


In sclera diagnosis or sclerology, the location and shape of the blood vessels visible in the sclera, the white of the eye, are interpreted. Generally only the problem areas are indicated, not the nature of the complaint. Sclerology may show that the function of an organ is disturbed, but not whether it is overactive or under-active. It helps if you have good light and a magnifying glass for examination.

To inspect the lower part of the sclera, let the examinee look up while you pull down the lower eyelid; to look at the upper part, the examinee should look down while you gently roll up the upper lid; examine the outside while the examinee looks toward the other eye and the inner part of the sclera while looking away from the other eye.

Generally a blood vessel pointing towards a certain organ reflex in the iris indicates that there is something wrong with that organ or part of the body. The stronger the blood vessel is visible and also the more of them are bunching together, the worse is the problem. A bluish colour of the sclera indicates under-activity.

Disclaimer: The aim of this web site is to provide information on using natural healing methods to aid in the treatment of illness and health improvement.
The author cannot accept any legal responsibility for any problem arising from experimenting with these methods. For any serious disease,
or if you are unsure about a particular course of action, seek the help of a competent health professional.

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